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微信公众平台java开发详解(工程代码+解析)

我来了! 发表于 2年前  | 评论(2 )| 阅读次数(6106 )|   3 人收藏此文章,   我要收藏
说明:
本次的教程主要是对微信公众平台开发者模式的讲解,网络上很多类似文章,但很多都让初学微信开发的人一头雾水,所以总结自己的微信开发经验,将微信开发的整个过程系统的列出,并对主要代码进行讲解分析,让初学者尽快上手。

在阅读本文之前,应对微信公众平台的官方开发文档有所了解,知道接收和发送的都是xml格式的数据。另外,在做内容回复时用到了图灵机器人的api接口这是一个自然语言解析的开放平台,可以帮我们解决整个微信开发过程中最困难的问题,此处不多讲,下面会有其详细的调用方式。


1.1 在登录微信官方平台之后,开启开发者模式,此时需要我们填写url和token,所谓url就是我们自己服务器的接口,用WechatServlet.java来实现,相关解释已经在注释中说明,代码如下:

 
    package demo.servlet;  
      
    import java.io.BufferedReader;  
    import java.io.IOException;  
    import java.io.InputStream;  
    import java.io.InputStreamReader;  
    import java.io.OutputStream;  
      
    import javax.servlet.ServletException;  
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServlet;  
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletRequest;  
    import javax.servlet.http.HttpServletResponse;  
      
    import demo.process.WechatProcess;  
    /** 
     * 微信服务端收发消息接口 
     *  
     * @author pamchen-1 
     *  
     */  
    public class WechatServlet extends HttpServlet {  
      
        /** 
         * The doGet method of the servlet. <br> 
         *  
         * This method is called when a form has its tag value method equals to get. 
         *  
         * @param request 
         *            the request send by the client to the server 
         * @param response 
         *            the response send by the server to the client 
         * @throws ServletException 
         *             if an error occurred 
         * @throws IOException 
         *             if an error occurred 
         */  
        public void doGet(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)  
                throws ServletException, IOException {  
            request.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");  
            response.setCharacterEncoding("UTF-8");  
      
            /** 读取接收到的xml消息 */  
            StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();  
            InputStream is = request.getInputStream();  
            InputStreamReader isr = new InputStreamReader(is, "UTF-8");  
            BufferedReader br = new BufferedReader(isr);  
            String s = "";  
            while ((s = br.readLine()) != null) {  
                sb.append(s);  
            }  
            String xml = sb.toString(); //次即为接收到微信端发送过来的xml数据  
      
            String result = "";  
            /** 判断是否是微信接入激活验证,只有首次接入验证时才会收到echostr参数,此时需要把它直接返回 */  
            String echostr = request.getParameter("echostr");  
            if (echostr != null && echostr.length() > 1) {  
                result = echostr;  
            } else {  
                //正常的微信处理流程  
                result = new WechatProcess().processWechatMag(xml);  
            }  
      
            try {  
                OutputStream os = response.getOutputStream();  
                os.write(result.getBytes("UTF-8"));  
                os.flush();  
                os.close();  
            } catch (Exception e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            }  
        }  
      
        /** 
         * The doPost method of the servlet. <br> 
         *  
         * This method is called when a form has its tag value method equals to 
         * post. 
         *  
         * @param request 
         *            the request send by the client to the server 
         * @param response 
         *            the response send by the server to the client 
         * @throws ServletException 
         *             if an error occurred 
         * @throws IOException 
         *             if an error occurred 
         */  
        public void doPost(HttpServletRequest request, HttpServletResponse response)  
                throws ServletException, IOException {  
            doGet(request, response);  
        }  
      
    }   




1.2 相应的web.xml配置信息如下,在生成WechatServlet.java的同时,可自动生成web.xml中的配置。前面所提到的url处可以填写例如:http;//服务器地址/项目名/wechat.do

 
    <?xml version="1.0" encoding="UTF-8"?>  
    <web-app version="2.5"   
        xmlns="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee"   
        xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"   
        xsi:schemaLocation="http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee   
        http://java.sun.com/xml/ns/javaee/web-app_2_5.xsd">  
      <servlet>  
        <description>This is the description of my J2EE component</description>  
        <display-name>This is the display name of my J2EE component</display-name>  
        <servlet-name>WechatServlet</servlet-name>  
        <servlet-class>demo.servlet.WechatServlet</servlet-class>  
      </servlet>  
      
      <servlet-mapping>  
        <servlet-name>WechatServlet</servlet-name>  
        <url-pattern>/wechat.do</url-pattern>  
      </servlet-mapping>  
      <welcome-file-list>  
        <welcome-file>index.jsp</welcome-file>  
      </welcome-file-list>  
    </web-app>   




1.3 通过以上代码,我们已经实现了微信公众平台开发的框架,即开通开发者模式并成功接入、接收消息和发送消息这三个步骤。


下面就讲解其核心部分——解析接收到的xml数据,并以文本类消息为例,通过图灵机器人api接口实现智能回复。


2.1 首先看一下整体流程处理代码,包括:xml数据处理、调用图灵api、封装返回的xml数据。
 
    package demo.process;  
      
    import java.util.Date;  
      
    import demo.entity.ReceiveXmlEntity;  
      
    /** 
     * 微信xml消息处理流程逻辑类 
     * @author pamchen-1 
     * 
     */  
    public class WechatProcess {  
        /** 
         * 解析处理xml、获取智能回复结果(通过图灵机器人api接口) 
         * @param xml 接收到的微信数据 
         * @return  最终的解析结果(xml格式数据) 
         */  
        public String processWechatMag(String xml){  
            /** 解析xml数据 */  
            ReceiveXmlEntity xmlEntity = new ReceiveXmlProcess().getMsgEntity(xml);  
              
            /** 以文本消息为例,调用图灵机器人api接口,获取回复内容 */  
            String result = "";  
            if("text".endsWith(xmlEntity.getMsgType())){  
                result = new TulingApiProcess().getTulingResult(xmlEntity.getContent());  
            }  
              
            /** 此时,如果用户输入的是“你好”,在经过上面的过程之后,result为“你也好”类似的内容  
             *  因为最终回复给微信的也是xml格式的数据,所有需要将其封装为文本类型返回消息 
             * */  
            result = new FormatXmlProcess().formatXmlAnswer(xmlEntity.getFromUserName(), xmlEntity.getToUserName(), result);  
              
            return result;  
        }  
    }   




2.2 解析接收到的xml数据,此处有两个类,ReceiveXmlEntity.java和ReceiveXmlProcess.java,通过反射的机制动态调用实体类中的set方法,可以避免很多重复的判断,提高代码效率,代码如下:

    package demo.entity;  
    /** 
     * 接收到的微信xml实体类 
     * @author pamchen-1 
     * 
     */  
    public class ReceiveXmlEntity {  
        private String ToUserName="";  
        private String FromUserName="";  
        private String CreateTime="";  
        private String MsgType="";  
        private String MsgId="";  
        private String Event="";  
        private String EventKey="";  
        private String Ticket="";  
        private String Latitude="";  
        private String Longitude="";  
        private String Precision="";  
        private String PicUrl="";  
        private String MediaId="";  
        private String Title="";  
        private String Description="";  
        private String Url="";  
        private String Location_X="";  
        private String Location_Y="";  
        private String Scale="";  
        private String Label="";  
        private String Content="";  
        private String Format="";  
        private String Recognition="";  
          
        public String getRecognition() {  
            return Recognition;  
        }  
        public void setRecognition(String recognition) {  
            Recognition = recognition;  
        }  
        public String getFormat() {  
            return Format;  
        }  
        public void setFormat(String format) {  
            Format = format;  
        }  
        public String getContent() {  
            return Content;  
        }  
        public void setContent(String content) {  
            Content = content;  
        }  
        public String getLocation_X() {  
            return Location_X;  
        }  
        public void setLocation_X(String locationX) {  
            Location_X = locationX;  
        }  
        public String getLocation_Y() {  
            return Location_Y;  
        }  
        public void setLocation_Y(String locationY) {  
            Location_Y = locationY;  
        }  
        public String getScale() {  
            return Scale;  
        }  
        public void setScale(String scale) {  
            Scale = scale;  
        }  
        public String getLabel() {  
            return Label;  
        }  
        public void setLabel(String label) {  
            Label = label;  
        }  
        public String getTitle() {  
            return Title;  
        }  
        public void setTitle(String title) {  
            Title = title;  
        }  
        public String getDescription() {  
            return Description;  
        }  
        public void setDescription(String description) {  
            Description = description;  
        }  
        public String getUrl() {  
            return Url;  
        }  
        public void setUrl(String url) {  
            Url = url;  
        }  
        public String getPicUrl() {  
            return PicUrl;  
        }  
        public void setPicUrl(String picUrl) {  
            PicUrl = picUrl;  
        }  
        public String getMediaId() {  
            return MediaId;  
        }  
        public void setMediaId(String mediaId) {  
            MediaId = mediaId;  
        }  
        public String getEventKey() {  
            return EventKey;  
        }  
        public void setEventKey(String eventKey) {  
            EventKey = eventKey;  
        }  
        public String getTicket() {  
            return Ticket;  
        }  
        public void setTicket(String ticket) {  
            Ticket = ticket;  
        }  
        public String getLatitude() {  
            return Latitude;  
        }  
        public void setLatitude(String latitude) {  
            Latitude = latitude;  
        }  
        public String getLongitude() {  
            return Longitude;  
        }  
        public void setLongitude(String longitude) {  
            Longitude = longitude;  
        }  
        public String getPrecision() {  
            return Precision;  
        }  
        public void setPrecision(String precision) {  
            Precision = precision;  
        }  
        public String getEvent() {  
            return Event;  
        }  
        public void setEvent(String event) {  
            Event = event;  
        }  
        public String getMsgId() {  
            return MsgId;  
        }  
        public void setMsgId(String msgId) {  
            MsgId = msgId;  
        }  
        public String getToUserName() {  
            return ToUserName;  
        }  
        public void setToUserName(String toUserName) {  
            ToUserName = toUserName;  
        }  
        public String getFromUserName() {  
            return FromUserName;  
        }  
        public void setFromUserName(String fromUserName) {  
            FromUserName = fromUserName;  
        }  
        public String getCreateTime() {  
            return CreateTime;  
        }  
        public void setCreateTime(String createTime) {  
            CreateTime = createTime;  
        }  
        public String getMsgType() {  
            return MsgType;  
        }  
        public void setMsgType(String msgType) {  
            MsgType = msgType;  
        }  
    }   




    package demo.process;  
      
    import java.lang.reflect.Field;  
    import java.lang.reflect.Method;  
    import java.util.Iterator;  
    import org.dom4j.Document;  
    import org.dom4j.DocumentHelper;  
    import org.dom4j.Element;  
      
    import demo.entity.ReceiveXmlEntity;  
    /** 
     * 解析接收到的微信xml,返回消息对象 
     * @author pamchen-1 
     * 
     */  
    public class ReceiveXmlProcess {  
        /** 
         * 解析微信xml消息 
         * @param strXml 
         * @return 
         */  
        public ReceiveXmlEntity getMsgEntity(String strXml){  
            ReceiveXmlEntity msg = null;  
            try {  
                if (strXml.length() <= 0 || strXml == null)  
                    return null;  
                   
                // 将字符串转化为XML文档对象  
                Document document = DocumentHelper.parseText(strXml);  
                // 获得文档的根节点  
                Element root = document.getRootElement();  
                // 遍历根节点下所有子节点  
                Iterator<?> iter = root.elementIterator();  
                  
                // 遍历所有结点  
                msg = new ReceiveXmlEntity();  
                //利用反射机制,调用set方法  
                //获取该实体的元类型  
                Class<?> c = Class.forName("demo.entity.ReceiveXmlEntity");  
                msg = (ReceiveXmlEntity)c.newInstance();//创建这个实体的对象  
                  
                while(iter.hasNext()){  
                    Element ele = (Element)iter.next();  
                    //获取set方法中的参数字段(实体类的属性)  
                    Field field = c.getDeclaredField(ele.getName());  
                    //获取set方法,field.getType())获取它的参数数据类型  
                    Method method = c.getDeclaredMethod("set"+ele.getName(), field.getType());  
                    //调用set方法  
                    method.invoke(msg, ele.getText());  
                }  
            } catch (Exception e) {  
                // TODO: handle exception  
                System.out.println("xml 格式异常: "+ strXml);  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            }  
            return msg;  
        }  
    }   





2.3 调用图灵机器人api接口,获取智能回复内容

    package demo.process;  
      
    import java.io.IOException;  
    import java.io.UnsupportedEncodingException;  
    import java.net.URLEncoder;  
      
    import org.apache.http.HttpResponse;  
    import org.apache.http.client.ClientProtocolException;  
    import org.apache.http.client.methods.HttpGet;  
    import org.apache.http.impl.client.HttpClients;  
    import org.apache.http.util.EntityUtils;  
    import org.json.JSONException;  
    import org.json.JSONObject;  
      
    /** 
     * 调用图灵机器人api接口,获取智能回复内容 
     * @author pamchen-1 
     * 
     */  
    public class TulingApiProcess {  
        /** 
         * 调用图灵机器人api接口,获取智能回复内容,解析获取自己所需结果 
         * @param content 
         * @return 
         */  
        public String getTulingResult(String content){  
            /** 此处为图灵api接口,参数key需要自己去注册申请,先以11111111代替 */  
            String apiUrl = "http://www.tuling123.com/openapi/api?key=11111111&info=";  
            String param = "";  
            try {  
                param = apiUrl+URLEncoder.encode(content,"utf-8");  
            } catch (UnsupportedEncodingException e1) {  
                // TODO Auto-generated catch block  
                e1.printStackTrace();  
            } //将参数转为url编码  
              
            /** 发送httpget请求 */  
            HttpGet request = new HttpGet(param);  
            String result = "";  
            try {  
                HttpResponse response = HttpClients.createDefault().execute(request);  
                if(response.getStatusLine().getStatusCode()==200){  
                    result = EntityUtils.toString(response.getEntity());  
                }  
            } catch (ClientProtocolException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            } catch (IOException e) {  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            }  
            /** 请求失败处理 */  
            if(null==result){  
                return "对不起,你说的话真是太高深了……";  
            }  
              
            try {  
                JSONObject json = new JSONObject(result);  
                //以code=100000为例,参考图灵机器人api文档  
                if(100000==json.getInt("code")){  
                    result = json.getString("text");  
                }  
            } catch (JSONException e) {  
                // TODO Auto-generated catch block  
                e.printStackTrace();  
            }  
            return result;  
        }  
    }   





2.4 将结果封装为微信规定的xml格式,并返回给1.1中创建的servlet接口。

    package demo.process;  
      
    import java.util.Date;  
    /** 
     * 封装最终的xml格式结果 
     * @author pamchen-1 
     * 
     */  
    public class FormatXmlProcess {  
        /** 
         * 封装文字类的返回消息 
         * @param to 
         * @param from 
         * @param content 
         * @return 
         */  
        public String formatXmlAnswer(String to, String from, String content) {  
            StringBuffer sb = new StringBuffer();  
            Date date = new Date();  
            sb.append("<xml><ToUserName><![CDATA[");  
            sb.append(to);  
            sb.append("]]></ToUserName><FromUserName><![CDATA[");  
            sb.append(from);  
            sb.append("]]></FromUserName><CreateTime>");  
            sb.append(date.getTime());  
            sb.append("</CreateTime><MsgType><![CDATA[text]]></MsgType><Content><![CDATA[");  
            sb.append(content);  
            sb.append("]]></Content><FuncFlag>0</FuncFlag></xml>");  
            return sb.toString();  
        }  
    }   

总结,以上便是微信公众平台开发的全部流程,整体来看并不复杂,要非常感谢图灵机器人提供的api接口,帮我们解决了智能回复这一高难度问题。其他类型的消息处理与示例中类似,有兴趣的开发者可以联系我进行交流学习,希望本文对大家有所帮助。

工程源码:http://www.sxt.cn/download/file-53

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